Dec 31, 2013

Why the world is getting better: A retrospect of 2013

Source: The Spectator
The rapid spread of globalization and capitalism has benefited millions of people around the world, especially in the developing societies. At the same time, it has annoyed and disappointed countless people, especially leftists, environmentalists and clergy. As per them, the world is coming to an end and the rapid economic growth has only accelerated our journey towards doom.  But, rarely do their gloomy predictions withstand the test of empirical evidence. If only the prediction of doomsayers governed the world, the world would have perished of global cooling in the 1970s, massive starvation in the 1980s and is supposed to end within a decade or two because of global warming (Hope you noticed the irony here). Despite their predictions, the life, in general is getting better for majority of the humanity as they have become richer and hence in a better position to attack enemies of humans such as poverty, illiteracy, operation, natural calamities and pollution to name a few. 2013 also saw a few changes that indicate a better future for human beings.

Fraser Nelson, editor of The Spectator has pointed out these changes in his article The biggest shocker of 2013? That it really is a wonderful world. As shown in the article, 

1. Deaths by malaria is decreasing rapidly as countries prone to it have grown richer and now are able to afford basic necessities like malaria nets. Places like Cambodia believe they’re three years away from extinguishing Malaria deaths. 

2. Looking at a broader picture, the world is living in the most peaceful time in modern history. The world-wide battle deaths per 100,000 people is decreasing rapidly. As economies are getting more integrated and interdependent, the war is becoming a costly thing day by day. This does not mean, every place in the world is peaceful. Many African countries are still engulfed in nasty civil wars but the overall trend is decreasing.

3. Global death rates due to extreme weather events is also declining. From 485 deaths out of 1000 deaths per year in 1920s, it has declined to 35 deaths out of 1000 deaths per year.

In the end of the article, the author has recommended a book which explains about the positive trends in the world and the causes behind them. In defense of Global Capitalism by Johan Norberg, happens to be one of my most favorite books and one of the few books that shifted my viewpoints very significantly. This book is a must read for anyone wishing to know about the status of the world and willing to do something to makes lives better. 

Fortunately, the book is available for free download. I have uploaded the book to slide-share and embed it below. Please feel free to read the book online or download it (recommended) for better reading.

Nov 19, 2013

Youth and Politics in Nepal : My Radio Interview

On November 13, I was interviewed by The Human Face, a radio program that is aired every Wednesday on Citizens FM 94 Megahertz on the issue of youth and politics. The program is run by SAATH Nepal a non-governmental organization working on social service, awareness raising and advocacy for tranquillity and humanity. Along with my fellow guest Rajesh Poudel, I have discussed about what should be the role of youth in the next Constitution Assembly, what political ideology best suits Nepal, what implication will youth candidates like those from Bibeksheel Nepali have, what can be done for effective leadership development and succession planning among young politicians etc. You can listen to my interview at the following link. Please check it out. I would be happy to answer any query or comment that you might have.


Nov 12, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३९ (अन्तिम भाग ) (धर्ती र स्वतन्त्रता)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३९ औं (अन्तिम) भागमा  कोन्डोरले जुजुमानलाई उनको घरसम्म पुर्याइदिन्छ ।  आफ्ना बाबुआमालाई भेट्न पाउँदा अत्यन्त हर्षित भएका जुजुमानले केहि संकल्पहरु गर्छन । 

ति संकल्पहरु के के हुन त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।   

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)

Nov 11, 2013

Election Promises!

The second round of the Constitution Assembly polls are at our doorstep. So are politicians representing different political parties. Political parties have come up with their election manifestos which, if reality were to be ignored, are very impressive. Almost every political party has gone out of their way to make beautiful commitments, especially in the economic sphere.

Unrealistic Promises

For instance, U-CPN Maoists party has promised us a 7.9 per cent economic growth rate for the next five years which is supposed to increase to 11 per cent in the next decade whereas the Rastriya Prajatantra Party has promised us double digit economic growth within a decade. Nepali Congress promises us a double digit growth in four to eight years. Similarly, CPN-UML promises to create 300 thousand jobs annually and bring two million international tourists to Nepal in the next five years among other things.

Although fun to read, these manifestos raise some very important questions:

The first and foremost question is how. How are they going to achieve those goals? How is Nepal going to have a more than seven per cent economic growth rate, let alone double digit growth? If we look at our current growth rate, it hovers around four per cent which is hardly indicative of our possibility of leaping to a double digit growth in the near future. Economic growth does not come out of thin air. It requires economic policies friendly to growth, an environment encouraging entrepreneurship and a commitment from the government to support the growth process or at least not act as a hindrance to economic growth.

In this regard, the current picture of Nepal is miles away from satisfactory.  In the recently released Doing Business 2014: Understanding regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises report, Nepal ranks 105th out of 180 countries with regards to the ease of doing business. Although improving, the pace of reforms are too slow to have any significant effect. Similarly, in the latest Economic Freedom of the World report which measures the degree of economic freedom enjoyed by citizens of a country, Nepal ranks 125th out of 152 countries with a score of 6.19 out of 10. Out of the 10 components of the index, Nepal’s performance is especially dismal in regard to legal structures and security of property rights. Security of property rights and economic freedom are essential for growth of any society. Empirical evidences also show that promotion of entrepreneurship and the private sector is a prerequisite for economic growth and development.

Unfortunately, none of the political parties seem to have anything to say on these issues. 

Unanswerable Questions

Since the upcoming elections is Constitution Assembly polls not just regular elections, it is important that political parties discuss macro issues like economic model, role of government and private sector in the economy et cetera rather than micro issues like how many tourists we will bring or what roads will we build. What kind of development path shall we follow is more important than what roads we will build. Rather than discussing what amount of Megawatts of electricity will we produce, we should be discussing about macro issues like will foreign direct investment be a major instrument of hydro-power development? If we are creating 300 thousand jobs, how will that happen? Will the government create those jobs for the sake of jobs or will the government be committed to creating a business-friendly environment to create more jobs? Will the government be committed to building the necessary infrastructure and business environment for preventing industries from shutting down? Will we embrace an open economic model or try a closed economic model?  Will we do it through economic reforms and by attracting foreign direct investment like China and India or will we shun foreign investment like before?

Not answering these questions means repeating past mistakes. The Nepali people have heard promises of rapid growth, transformation of Nepal into Singapore and Switzerland number of times. And they have been disappointed several times and this time will not be an exception too. In the last CA elections too, we had heard numerous lofty promises such as 10,000 Megawatt of hydro-electricity within a decade. The ensuing disappointment is well-known to everyone. The trend of making arbitrary promises in election manifestos also shows that political parties are not taking economic issues seriously.

Conclusion

For every revolution and political change in the past, political agendas have taken the front seat. An economic agenda has never been a priority and no wonder countless revolutions and political changes have failed to deliver economic growth and prosperity.  It is time that political parties start taking about economic issues and agenda more seriously. The citizens too have the responsibility to ask and analyse how political parties plan to achieve what they promise. Without answers to the how question, the economic aspects of the manifestos are nothing more than empty promises. 

-Surath Giri

Nov 10, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३८ (गिद्द, मगन्ते, धूर्त र राजाहरु)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस३८ औं भागमा जुजुमान र एलिशाको कोन्डोर भन्ने गिद्द सँग भेट हुन्छ ।  कोन्डोरलाई जुजुमान र एलिशाले उक्त टापूका केहि मानिस हरुलाई गिद्द भनेर सम्बोधन गरेकोमा ठुलो चित्त दुखाई छ ।  कोन्डोरको विचारमा गिद्दहरु मगन्ते, धूर्त र राजाहरु भन्दा धेरै असल र नैतिक हुन्छन रे ।  त्यसैले उनिहरुको तुलना गिद्द सँग गर्नु गिद्दको अपमान हो रे ।

कोन्डोरले किन त्यसो भनेको रहेछ ? र के साँच्चै गिद्दहरु मगन्ते, धूर्त र राजाहरु भन्दा असल र नैतिक हुन्छन त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।  

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Nov 9, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३७ (लोकतन्त्र टोली)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३७औं भागमा जुजुमानको केहि समय पहिले भेटिएर छुट्टिएकी एलिशासँग पुन:भेट हुन्छ । एलिशा पनि उक्त कुस्ती प्रतियोगिता हेर्न आएकी रैछ । तर यस्तैमा उक्त प्रतियोगिता भएको ठाँउमा लोकतन्त्र टोली आइपुग्छन जसले गर्दा सबै दर्शक बिच भागाभाग मच्चिन्छ ।  मानिस हरु उक्त मैदान बाट मात्र नभै शहर बाटै भाग्छन उक्त टोली को आगमन पछी । 

लोकतन्त्र टोली देखेर मानिस हरु भागाभाग गरेका रहेछन ? लोकतन्त्र टोलीलाई त उनिहरुले स्वागत गर्नु पर्ने होईन र ? अनि जुजुमानको एलिशा सँगको भेट कस्तो हुन्छ त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।  

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।

  
पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Nov 8, 2013

Why do cartels and syndicates persist in Nepal?

Anti-competitive practices such as syndicates, cartels, price-fixing are prevalent in almost every sector of Nepalese economy. Transport sector seems to be the most affected by syndicates and cartels. General public have not only been paying premium prices for sub-par transportation services but they have also been exposed to higher risks during their travels as they are forced to travel in decades old vehicles. This has resulted in unusually high death rates due to road accidents in Nepal. Although the Supreme Court has already declared cartels illegal, the government has not bothered to enforce the decision. Similarly, other sectors of the economy like education in the service sector is also facing anti-competitive prices mainly due to collusive price fixing. Many people, especially the socialists point out to syndicates and cartels and condemn the liberalization efforts of 1990s implying that they are the results of free market economy.

But is it true? What are the causes behind these anti-competitive practices in Nepal? Why do they  persist and why does not the government make efforts to tackle such practices? Who is benefiting from these practices? My colleagues at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation have tried to answer these questions by analyzing the anti-competitive practices in five sectors of Nepalese economy, namely hydropower, education, agriculture, transport and tourism. Please go through the paper and let us know what you think of the paper. Please feel free to add your opinion and information in the comments below.

Nov 7, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३६ (हरुवाको नियम)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३६औं भागमा जुजुमान् क्रोम्पो टापूको एउटा एकदमै चर्चित खेल हेर्न पुग्छन् । त्यो खेल एउटा कुस्ती प्रतियोगिता हो । तर  यसमा एउटा नौलो कुरा चै के छ भने यस खेल मा जित्ने ले मात्र नभै हार्नेले पनि पुरस्कार जित्छ । साथै हार्ने प्रतियोगीले जिन्दगी भर काम गर्नु पर्दैन । 

किन त्यस खेल मा हार्नेले पनि पुरस्कार पाउँदो रहेछ त ? अनि झन हार्ने मान्छेले चै जिन्दगी भर काम गर्नु नपर्ने ? किन त्यस्तो अचम्मको नियम ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।  

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Nov 6, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३५ (महान अन्वेषक)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३५औं  भागमा जुजुमानलाई डुबी र जमुनाले उनिहरुको महान अन्वेषककोमा लिएर जान्छन ।  जुजुमानले उनिहरुलाई प्रश्नै प्रश्न सोधेर हैरान पारे पछी उनिहरुले त्यसो गरेका हुन ।  ती महान अन्वेषकले मानिसहरुलाई  "शान्ती नै युद्ध हो, बुद्धी अज्ञानता हो, स्वतन्त्रता दासत्व हो" भनेर सिकाउँदा रहेछन ।  मानिस हरुचै विना कुनै प्रश्न उनले भनेको मान्दा रहेछन । तर हाम्रो जुजुमान चानचुने मानिस होईनन । उनले महान अन्वेषकलाई पनि प्रश्न गर्दी हाल्छन ।  

ती महान अन्वेषकले किन त्यसो भनेका रहेछन ? अनि जुजुमानको प्रश्न को जवाफ उनले कसरी दिन्छन त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Doing Business in Nepal : Ground Realities

Since the economic reforms started in 1980s under the Structural Adjustment Program of IMF and World Bank, Nepal has endeavoured to follow an open and export-oriented economic model. Many restrictions on imports have been removed and custom duties have been reduced, the controls on foreign exchange also have been relaxed. Industrial licensing system has been reformed and foreign investment has been allowed in the country. Private sector has been recognized as one of the major pillars of the Nepalese economy. 

One of the major characteristics of a market economy is the freedom to enterprise which requires that there are no excessive regulations from the government. Studies have found that poor countries regulate their business the most and heavier regulations usually result in more inefficiency in public institutions with longer delays and higher costs along with higher unemployment, higher rates of corruption and less investment and productivity (World Bank, 2004). Nepal is not an exception despite adopting market friendly economic regime in the framework of economic liberalization with the objective of improving the competition and doing business scenario.

In the  Doing Business 2014: Understanding Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Enterprises report, Nepal has been ranked 105th out 189 countries with regards to ease of doing business. Nepalese enterprises seem to face additional problems and hurdles that are not covered in the report. Under the guidance of Dr. Dileep K. Adhikary, I have co-written a paper titled "Doing Business in Nepal: Ground Realities" with my colleague at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation. I have tried to find out what kind of additional hurdles do business enterprises in Nepal face and what can be done about it. I would love your comments and feedback on the paper.


Nov 5, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३४ (मेरीबेरिज)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३४औं  भागमा जुजुमानको फेरी एक महिलासँग जम्काभेट हुन्छ ।  ति महिला अत्यन्त मोटी छिन र शरीरको धेरै भाग देखिने गरी लुगा लगाएकी छिन । उनले जुजुमानलाई सोध्छिन्, "के तिमी आनन्द लिन चाहन्छौं ?" जुजुमानलाई भने केहि समय पहिले भेटेका अनैतिक कार्य हेर्ने प्रहरीको याद आउँछ र ती महिलाको शरीर बाट आएको दुर्गन्धले गर्दा वाक्क आउला आउला जस्तो हुन्छ ।  

ती महिलाले कस्तो आनन्द को कुरा गरेकी रैछन त ? अनि जुजुमानले तीनीलाई के जवाफ दिन्छन त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।




पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Oct 31, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३३ (अनैतिक कार्य)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३३ औं भागमा जुजुमान बाटोमा एक्लै हिंडीरहेको बेलामा एउटी महिला सँग जम्काभेट हुन्छ । ति महिला अन्त्यन्त सजिएर बसेकी छन् र पुरुषहरुलाई केहि मागेको झैँ गरेर ईशारा गरिराखेकी छिन । ति महिला देहव्यापारी हुन् भनेर जुजुमानले पत्तै लगाउन सक्दैनन् । यस्तैमा एक भ्यान प्रहरी आएर  ति महिला र अर्की एउटी महिला लाई समातेर लैजान्छन् । प्रहरीलाई देखेर जुजुमानलाई आफो चोरिएको सामान को याद आऊछ र उनि प्रहरीको मा उजुरी हाल्न जान्छन । तर ती प्रहरी अचम्मका रहेछन । डकैती उनको विभाग अन्तर्गत पर्दैन रे


डकैती चै किन उनको विभाग अन्तर्गत नपर्ने रहेछ? अनि उक्त महिलाहरुलाई उनले कुन आधारमा समातेका रहेछन ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Oct 29, 2013

How are the public enterprises of Nepal doing?

Although huge state-owned enterprises are benchmark of any centrally planned economy, after second World War, numerous public enterprises emerged even in market economies of the West. The stated purpose of establishing these enterprises is to provide goods and services to citizens cheaply and in some cases provide goods and services that are not taken up by the private sector for lack of profit-making opportunities. In centrally planned economies, public enterprises were (and still are) considered essential to spearhead the economic growth and control the commanding heights of the economy. However, more often than not, public enterprises have failed. They have not only failed to achieve their objectives but usually have ended up being a drag on their economy.

Nepal too had created dozens of state-owned enterprises starting 1950s. But Nepalese public enterprises also have failed to meet their objectives and instead have become one of the most lucrative avenues for corruption and labor politics. A handful of these enterprises were privatized during the economic reforms of early 1990s. Today around 36 public enterprises are in operation, out of which, nearly every one of them is incurring losses

Why is the scenario so bleak? Why have our public enterprises failed and what can be done about it? Is privatization the only option or restructuring them can solve the problem? Which of the public enterprises are really essential for us? These are some of the questions, my colleagues at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation have tried to answer in the following study. Please go through it and let us know if you have any comments or feedback.

Oct 28, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३२ (पण्डित्याइँ)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३२ औं भागमा जुजुमानले त्यस क्रोम्पो टापूका चिकित्सक हरुलाई भेट्छन । त्यस टापूका अन्य कुरा झै बिरामीको उपचार गर्ने तरिका पनि अचम्मको छ । बिरामीहरुलाई पिडा दिई-दिई कन उपचार गर्ने गरिन्छ त्यहाँ । बिरामी ले उपचार गर्दिन भन्न पनि पाउँदैन । फेरी लाईसेन्स नभाको व्यक्तिले पनि कुनै बिरामीलाई उपचार गर्न पाउँदैन ।

किन बिरामीलाई पिडा दिई-दिई कन उपचार गरिदो रहेछ त्यहाँ ?  जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।


पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।




पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 32

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)

Oct 27, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३१ (कानूनवेत्ता)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३१ औं भागमा जुजुमान जङबहादुर सँग नै कुरा गर्दैछन ।  उनले जङबहादुर बाट अझ भनउ उसका सहयोगी हरु बाट एल. पि.आर. भन्ने नयाँ अवधारणाका बारेमा सिक्दैछन । एल. पि.आर. को अर्थ सिमित व्यक्तिगत दायित्व भन्ने बुझिन्छ । जङबहादुर का अनुसार यसले ऊ जस्ता उध्यमीहरुलाई ठूलो सहयोग पुर्याएको छ रे । यस्तैमा शासक पोन्जिकी अन्त्यन्त सुन्दर श्रीमती सँग पनि जुजुमानको जम्काभेट हुन्छ ।

एल. पी. आर. ले कसरी जङबहादुर जस्ता व्यक्तीलाई सहयोग पुर्याउदो रहेछ र पोन्जीकी श्रीमती सँग को जुजुमानको जम्काभेट कस्तो रहन्छ त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 31

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।


The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)

Oct 26, 2013

What causes industrial conflicts in Nepal?

Frequent industrial conflicts, labor agitation, strikes and shutdowns are among the major hurdles to industrial growth and development in Nepal. Investors have time and again cited militant labor unions as a major deterrent to investing in Nepal and permanent closure of a major business because of labor agitation is not a news anymore for us. In the Economic Freedom of the World Report 2012, Nepal scores 3.33 out of 10 in the Hiring and Minimum Wage regulations, 4.13 in hiring and firing regulations and 2.05 in the mandated cost of worker dismissal which points out to a terrible scenario.

On the other hand, cases of exploitation, breach of employment contract by employer are time and again reported in the media. Many working people complain that Nepalese employers treat their employees as slaves. So what causes the industrial conflicts in Nepal, why do even petty conflicts lead to large scale conflict and shutdown of the businesses.

My colleagues at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation have studied this issue from an institutional perspective. This paper delves into the various aspects that give rise to tenuous industrial relationships fraught with mistrust on all sides. The paper discusses how lack of accountability mechanisms within the trade union structure including the relative weakness of enterprise level unions in terms of negotiations, lack of grievance handling mechanisms in industrial settings and weak labor institutions created by the government, all contribute to the intense and antagonistic nature of industrial relations in Nepal. Do check it out! The authors would also love any comment or feedback.




Oct 24, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग ३० (सर्वोत्तम बिचार कसको ?)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस ३० औं भागमा जुजुमानको जंगबहादुर भन्ने व्यक्ती सँग भेट हुन्छ ।  उनी आज अत्यन्त प्रशन्न मुद्रामा छन । कारण ? कारण उनले आज दुईको बिरुद्ध ३ मतको बहुमतले बन्च रो को अनुमती पत्र पाएका छन सर्वोच्च अदालत बाट । यसकारण उनको सम्पत्ती सुनिश्चित भएको छ रे । यस कारणले गर्दा अब उप्रान्त बन्च रो प्रयोग गर्ने सबैले उनलाई पैसा तिर्नु पर्छ रे ।  

यो कस्तो खालको अधिकार रहेछ ? र सर्वोच्च अदालतले यो कुन आधारमा प्रदान गर्दो रहेछ ?  जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।




पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 30

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)

Oct 23, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २९ (उपकार कि छलकपट)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २९ औं भागमा जुजुमान शासकहरुको दरबार घुम्दै जाँदा एउटा कोठामा पुग्छन जहाँ केहि वृद्द पुरुष तथा महिला झगडा गरिरहेका छन । उनिहरु एकदम क्रोधीत देखिन्छन र हात हालाहाल कै स्थिती आउने देखिन्छ ।  उनीहरु शासक पोन्जी को एउटा योजना लाई लिएर झगडा गर्दैछन जुन योजना को नियत अत्यन्त राम्रो थियो तर अहिले सबै जना उक्त योजना ले आफुलाई ठगेको ठानीराखेका छन ।  

त्यो योजना के रहेछ त ? अनि के त्यो योजना को उदेश्य साँच्चै छलकपट थियो त ? थिएन भने कसरी उपकारी योजना छलकपट मा परिणत हुन गयो ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 29

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।


Oct 22, 2013

How to increase foreign direct investment in Nepal?

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is being recognized as one of the key drivers of rapid economic growth and prosperity around the world. Cases of China, India and many other South East Asian nations show that attracting foreign direct investment and sustaining it can lead to unprecedented economic prosperity catapulting developing countries into middle-income countries. During the economic reforms of early 1990s, our policy-makers had enough sense to open  up the economy and open doors for foreign investment. However, the process of economic reforms has stalled since long ago. Although foreign direct investment is on the rise, the growth is miles away from satisfactory.

This paper on foreign direct investment written by my colleagues at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation under the guidance of Dr. Bhola Nath Chalise looks at what is the current scenario of foreign direct investment in Nepal, what hurdles are preventing its growth and what the second generation of reforms would look life for attracting more foreign investment in Nepal.  Please check it out and provide us with your comments and feedback.

Oct 21, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २८ (नव आगन्तुकहरु)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २८ औं भागमा जुजुमान अझै कैदीहरुको माझमा नै छन ।  महिला कैदीहरु मध्य कि एक श्रीमती चित्रलेखा भने आफुलाई अन्य साधारण कैदी हरु सँग राखेको मा रुष्ट छिन । उनको गल्ती भनेको दु:खी र गरीब आप्रवासी हरुलाई घरायसी काममा जागिर दिनु हो ।

गरीब आप्रवासीलाई जागिर दिनु चै किन अपराध भएछ ? र चित्रलेखा लाई कस्तो कारवाही हुन्छ त अब ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।


यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Oct 19, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २७ (पापको ज्याला )

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २७औं भागमा जुजुमान शोम्यान फिलको कर्यक्रम हेरिसकेर उक्त दरवारको अन्य भाग घुम्न निस्कन्छन । यस्तैमा एक ठाँउमा उनले केहि कैदीहरुलाई नेल लगाएर बाँधीराखेको देख्छन ।  छेवैको एउटा बोर्डमा यस्तो लेखिएको छ - कडा श्रम विभाग । ती कैदीहरुमध्य एकजना चै भर्खर ११-१२ वर्षको ठिटो छ जो हेर्द अपराधी जस्तो देखिदैन । बुझ्दै जाँदा उसको अपराध सस्तो ज्यालामा काम गर्नु रहेछ ।

सस्तो ज्यालामा काम गर्नु अपराध किन हुन गएछ ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला।

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 27

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Oct 18, 2013

Trek to Rara Lake (from Dailekh): My Travelogue


20th October 2012, 2 pm
I slowly and rather unwillingly approach the bus counter of Mid-Western Region in New Bus Park. I sneak a peek at my cellphone to check the time. It is already more than 2 pm and our bus is supposed to depart at 4 pm. I push and shove the crowd to reach the counter. I show the guy at the counter my ticket and ask in a soft voice if he could cancel one of my tickets and give me a refund. He refuses saying they can't do so as the deadline for canceling the ticket had already passed and suggests me to wait for the bus and sell the ticket to someone else myself. I look around if to see if someone is looking for a ticket to Dailekh. Almost everyone seemed to be holding their own tickets. Damn! I say out aloud.

As the bus arrives, I ask the conductor if he would help me sell the ticket. He too refuses. Well, it was not in his interest to resale the already sold ticket. Then, I get an idea. I take out a paper and write “Tickets available for Dailekh for tonight's bus. If you want, contact...” and then put the paper behind the wipers of the bus. A small crowd gathers in front of the bus but no one seems to be in need of a ticket.

Day 1 and 2: Kathmandu - Dailekh Bazaar - Bhaisikhor

Despite our efforts, we were unable to sell the extra ticket as the counter refused to take back the tickets and conductor refused to sell it and it was quite difficult to find a person who already hadn't gotten a ticket even if the ticket was for a muda (stool made of bamboo). We even tried to sell the ticket to the Muda walas asking them to pay for our lunches and have the ticket. I guess, Govinda and I have a lot to  do to harness our selling skills. I reminded myself not to buy tickets for anyone from next trek until and unless they are guaranteed to come on the trek. After a while, we just gave up on selling the ticket and got engaged into solving a more pressing matter- finding a hat for me. I had this sudden urge to get a hat a few days before the trek but hadn't been able to buy one. So, we wandered around the shops in the bus park to see if we could find one. We finally found one.

We returned to our bus to find three extremely loquacious young girls (mid-teens) beside our seats. Hearing their chatter for a few minutes was enough to make us pray to god that the bus ride did not last long. As the time for departure neared, people slowly began filling the seats and eventually the aisle as well. In addition to the seats, about half a dozen passengers were accommodated by the mudas and a few daring ones were standing.

At around 4 pm, the bus departed. The extra seat proved to be a boon as I could keep my bag along with me and use it as a cushion whenever I needed it. Govinda and I started discussing about what Rara might look like and how it would have been wonderful if Manoj too had joined us. However, as the bus gained speed so did the chatter of those girls too. Their continuous chatter, giggles and shouts annoyed the hell out of me. In addition to their loquacity, there were annoyingly curious. Once we settled down properly, they began pelting questions at us: Where are you going? Trekking in Dashain? Don't your parents say anything? Have you been to Dailekh before? And whenever I used a new term.What does that mean? Blah. Blah.Blah. I was on the verge of banging my head on some wall but thankfully as the night wore on they felt sleepy and so did we.


However, it was almost 24 hours drive to Dailekh Bazaar and the driver seemed to be in a hurry. He did not make any efforts to avoid the small pits and potholes on the road. Thanks to him, proper sleep became an impossibility. After a frequently disturbed sleep for about 16 hours, the bus finally reached Surkhet where it stopped for lunch. Govinda and I used this time to freshen up ourselves, have some snacks and take a walk around Surkhet which I did not find that impressive.

Oct 16, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २६ (आवश्यकता अनुसार)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २६औ भागमा जुजुमान अझै पनि शोम्यान फिल को कार्यक्रम हेर्दैछन । उक्त कार्यक्रममा अब दिक्षान्तर खेलको पालो भएको छ जुन परिषदका विध्यालयका विध्यार्थीहरु विच हुने एउटा खेल हो ।  उक्त खेलको एउटा अभिन्न  अङ नेतृ ललिता पनि हुन ।  नेतृ ललिता ले दिएको भाषण र विध्यालयमा पढेका कुराहरु मध्यमा ठीक विपरित कुराहरु जसले धेरै पत्ता लगायो उसैले उक्त खेल् जित्छ ।  

खेल तपाईंलाई अचम्म लागेको होला होइन? उक्त खेल भन्दा पनि विध्यार्थीहरुले विध्यालय बाट अन्तिममा पाउने शैक्षिक अङ्क निर्धारण गर्ने तरिका झन अचम्मको छ ।  त्यो के होला? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 26

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Oct 12, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २५ (साच्चो समर्थक)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २५औं भागमा जुजुमान शोम्यान फिलको कार्यक्रम अझै हेर्दैछन । उक्त कार्यक्रममा क्रोम्पो टापूमा हुन लागेको आगमी निर्वाचन का एक उमेदवार जो क्याण्डी को अन्तर्वार्ता लियिएपछी अर्को पाहुनाको रूपमा एक वृद्द महिला लाई ल्याईएको छ ।  फोबी साइमन नाम की ती महिलाले क्रोम्पो टापूमा मतदाता को रूपमा रेकोर्ड नै तोडेकी छिन । उनले सबै निर्वाचन मा मतदान गरेर उक्त रेकोर्ड राख्न सफल भएकी हुन । त्यसैले उनिलाई साच्चो समर्थक पनि भनिन्छ ।

फोबी साइमनले किन सँधै भोट हाल्दी रहिछन त ? अनि के उनि किन सँधै एउटाै उमेदवार लाई भोट हाल्दी रहिछन ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

 पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 25

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 29, 2013

Contract Enforcement: The Practicalities of Dealing with Commercial Disputes in Nepal

Cost-effective and timely enforcement of contracts, especially the commercial contracts is a prerequisite for economic growth of a society. Without effective contract enforcement mechanisms, the tendency to breach a contract will be higher and discourage people and companies from undertaking impersonal and large-scale ventures. In World Bank's Doing Business Report 2013, Nepal ranks 137th out of 185 economies with regards to ease of enforcing contract enforcement. Why is the scenario like this? Why are Nepalese reluctant to enter into formal contracts and what alternatives to formal contract enforcement can be used in Nepal's scenario to make it more effective? 

I have coauthored the following paper on contract enforcement in Nepal with two other colleagues at Samriddhi, The Prosperity Foundation. This paper analyzes contract enforcement in Nepal focusing on the settlement of commercial disputes. It looks at the current contract enforcement scenario and discusses about the alternatives to formal contract enforcement mechanism i.e. through courts.


Sep 21, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २४ (प्रशंसा नाप्ने यन्त्र)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २४औं भागमा जुजुमान एउटा रङमन्च मा पुगेका छन । उक्त रङमन्च मा शोम्यान फिल ले केहि मनोरन्जनात्मक कार्यक्रमहरु प्रस्तुत गर्न गैरहेका छन । उक्त कार्यक्रम की पहिलो पाहुना डाक्टर जुलिया हुन । उनि सँग एउटा यस्तो यन्त्र छ रे जसले प्रशंसा नाप्न सक्छ रे । कुनै कुरा लाई लिएर मानिस कती प्रतिशत उत्साहित भए भन्ने कुरा उनले सजिलै भन्न सक्छिन रे ।

यो कस्तो खाले यन्त्र रहेछ ? र यसको प्रयोग चै के का लागी गरिने रहेछ ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

 पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 24

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 20, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २३ (जुत्ताको उत्पादन )

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २३औं भागमा अन्तत जुजुमान शासक हरुको सभा भैरहेको ठाँउमा पुग्छन् । शासक हरुले एउटा ऐतिहासिक निर्णय गर्दैछन ।   क्रोम्पो टापूको इतिहासमै पहिलो पल्ट सार्की हरुलाई जुत्ता उत्पादन नगरे वापत सरकारले पैसा दिने निर्णय गरेको छ। र यो निर्णय भविश्यमा हुन गैरहेका यस्तै अन्य निर्णयहरुको शृन्खलामा पहिले खुड्किलो मात्र रहेको पनि शासक हरुले जनाएका छन् । 

शासक हरुले किन जुत्ता उत्पादकहरु लाई जुत्ता उत्पादन नगर्दा चै पैसा दिने निर्णय गरेका रहेछन ? यसले गर्दा कसलाई फाइदा होला? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

 पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।



पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 23

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 19, 2013

Economic Freedom of the World 2013 and Nepal

Economic Freedom of the World 2013 was released yesterday. Here is how Nepal is doing with regards to economic freedom.

Sep 14, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २२ (संसारको सबैभन्दा पुरानो पेशा)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस२२औं भागमा जुजुमान आफ्नो चोरी भएको पैसा फिर्ता गर्न कसैले मदत गर्छ कि भन्दै शासक हरुको दरबार भएको ठाँउ मा पुग्छन् । त्यस् दरबार मा छिर्न नपाउदै उनको हातमा सुनको चुरा लगाएकी एउटी अधबैंसे महिला सँग भेट् हुन्छ । ति महिला ले जुजुमान लाइ सन्सारकै सबैभन्दा पुरानो पेशा को बारेमा बताउछिन् ।

सन्सारकै सबैभन्दा पुरानो पेशा भनेको चै के रहेछ? र ति महिला ले त्यो पेशा कसरी र किन अँगालेकी रहिछन् ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।   


 पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 22

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 10, 2013

Give youth a chance

-Surath Giri & Kanchan Kharel

The current state of Nepali politics has frustrated the majority, if not all Nepali youth. Youth response to current political developments has ranged from complacent indifference to active hatred. As a result, an important segment of the population does not find any stake in the ongoing political process. Will my vote really make a difference? Or am I better off not wasting my time by indulging in politics? These are pertinent questions beguiling the youth today. This is unfortunate because in addition to their vivacity and passion for progress, youth make up around 42 percent of the total population of Nepal, which makes them an indispensible component of the political process. Hence, it is imperative that their involvement in the process be actively sought.


Since the last Constituent Assembly (CA) election, political parties seem to have at least acknowledged this fact. However, political elites still see youth participation merely as a way to reinforce the legitimacy of their rule rather than a way to involve them as decision makers. Even during the last CA discourse, voices of young parliamentarians was as good as non-existent and key decisions largely revolved around older and more prominent leaders of the parties, although increased youth participation in the Parliament was touted as a harbinger of change. Besides, there is an emerging misconception among state actors that confirming the ‘participation’ of frustrated voters in the election alone would safeguard democracy and legitimise their rule. In the long run, such a fallacy is likely to end up in another revolution and more political upheaval in the country.

Sep 8, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २१ (सरकारहरुको बजार)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २१औं भागमा लुटेरा द्वारा हात खुट्टा बाँधेर छोडिएका जुजुमानलाई एउटा गोठालाले बचाउँछन र जुजुमानलाई सरकारहरुको बजारमा गयो भने लुटिएको सामान फिर्ता पाइन सक्ने सम्भावना रहेको कुरा बताउँछन । यसले जुजुमानलाई आफ्नो लुटिएको सामान फिर्ता पाइने कुरामा आशावान बनाउछ ।

सरकारहरुको बजार भनेको चै के रहेछ? यसको मतलब के त्यहाँ सरकार किन्न पाइन्छ?किन्न पाइने हो भने कस्तो कस्तो सरकार किन्न पाइने रहेछ त? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।

पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 21

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 7, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग २० (मलाई तिम्रो विगत देउ या त भविष्य देउ )

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस २०औं भागमा जुजुमान उक्त वृद्द को घर बाट बिदावारी भएर आफ्नो बाटो हिडिरहेको बेलामा अचानक कसैले पेस्तोल देखाएर भन्छ , "तिमी मलाई या त तिम्रो विगत देउ या त भविष्य देउ!" ।  जुजुमानले त्यस लुटेरा को कुरै बुझ्न सकेनन । 

त्यो अचम्मको लुटेराले भन्न चै के खोजेको रहेछ ?  अनि जुजुमानले उसलाई आफ्नो विगत दिन्छन कि भविष्य दिन्छन त ?  जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 20

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Sep 5, 2013

Sam Walton's Made in America: 10 Valuable Lessons

I neither knew much about Sam Walton nor had much interest before reading this book. After reading this book, however, I have developed an interest  and admiration for Walton's life and enterprise. 

At the end of World War II in 1945, 26-years-old Sam Walton borrowed a loan of $20,000 to buy a Ben Franklin Variety Store, which he operated successfully, too successfully perhaps. Seeing his tremendous success, the house-owner refused to renew his lease and appropriated the place for his son after the original lease period expired. Hence, Walton was forced to give up his business after he made it successful.

However, for an entrepreneur, such challenges are minor and in many cases, encourage him/her to do even better. He opened another variety store in a new place and soon grew his business into a chain of stores. While running the chain of variety stores, he established the first Wal-Mart in 1962 as a discount store. And as we all know, the rest is history. Wal-Mart is the largest retailer in the world and a multi-billion dollar company today.

The power of a free market system and competition in the society to bring economic growth and innovation is reflected abundantly in Wal-Mart's journey from a small discount store in 1960s to world's largest retailer today. As Walton reflects in the book, value creation for customers and constant innovation (be it through self innovation or by copying someone else) have been the hallmark of Wal-Mart Stores.To be sure, not every action of Wal-Mart is pro-market and it has abused power at times to outpace its competitors but its rise has been mainly because of innovation and value creation. Walton's passion for his work is truly admirable and contagious. Walton's impressive story aside, the book itself is less than impressive though. I found it poorly written. Readers are forced to contemplate once in a while what a great story it would have been if the book had been written by a better writer. Still, it is a highly recommended read from my side.

Towards the end of the book, Sam Walton has shared some lessons he learned during his journey of creating Wal-Mart empire which are valuable for aspiring entrepreneurs. They are as below:

1. COMMIT to your business. Believe in it more than anybody else. Eat, breathe, sleep your business.

2. SHARE your profits with all your associates (employees and stakeholders), and treat them as partners. If they are your employees, they will make your business profitable. If they are your partners, they will strive to make your business great.

3. MOTIVATE your partners. Money and ownership alone aren't enough. Respect and appreciation are equally important.

4. COMMUNICATE everything you possibly can to your partners. The more they know, the more they'll understand. Practice utmost transparency with your partners.

5. APPRECIATE everything your associates do for the business. A paycheck and a stock option will buy one kind of loyalty. But all of us like to be told how much somebody appreciates what we do for them.

6. CELEBRATE your successes. Find some humor in your failures. Don't take yourself so seriously. Have fun. 

7. LISTEN to everyone in your company. And figure out ways to get them talking.

8. EXCEED your customers' expectations. If you do, they'll come back over and over.

9. CONTROL your expenses better than your competition. This is where you can always find the competitive advantage.

10. SWIM upstream. Go the other way. Ignore the conventional wisdom. Use the Blue Ocean Strategy.

What do you think of these lessons? Share if you have any.

Aug 26, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग १९ (नि:शुल्क भोजनालय)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस१९औ भागमा जुजुमान उक्त वृद्दको घरबाट बिदा हुँदैछन । बिदा हुने बेलामा उक्त वृद्दकी श्रीमती रोजी जुजुमान समक्ष एउटा अनौठो अनुरोध गर्छिन । "जुजुमान्, हामिले तिमीलाई खाना खान दिएको कुरा कसैलाई नभन्नु है ।"

पाहुनालाई खाना खान दिएको कुरा पनि कसैलाई भन्न नहुने चै किन होला ? अनि यस्तो अनुरोध प्रती जुजुमानले कस्तो प्रतिकृया जनाउछन त ? जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।


पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।

पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 19

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Aug 25, 2013

जुजुमानका साहसिक कार्यहरु - भाग १८ (फेरी कछुवा र खरायो)

अर्थशार्त्री केन स्कुल्ल्यान्डद्वारा लिखित, नेपाली भाषा सहित गरेर विश्वका ४७ भाषामा अनुवाद भैसकेको "दि एड्भेन्चरस अफ जनाथन गलिबल : अ फ्री मार्केट ओडीसी" नामक पुस्तकको नेपाली अनुवादको पोड्कास्ट्को यस १८औ भागमा जुजुमान अघिल्लो भागमा भेटिएका वृद्दको घरमा बास बसेका छन । बिहानको नास्ता खाँदै गर्दा उक्त वृद्दकी श्रीमतीले आफ्नो नातीलाई कछुवा र खरायोको कथा सुनाईराखेको जुजुमानले सुन्छन । तर यो कछुवा र खरायो को कथा हामीले सुनी आएको कथा भन्दा नितान्त फरक छ । 

यहाँ पनि कछुवा र खरायो बिच प्रतियोगिता त हुन्छ तर अर्कै कारणका लागि । त्यो कारण के होला र यस कथामा चै कस्ले प्रतियोगिता जित्छ त ?  जान्नको लागि तलको पोड्कास्ट सुन्नुहोला ।  सुनेर प्रतिकृया पनि  दिनुहोला ।

पोड्कास्ट सुन्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोस ।


पोड्कास्ट डाउनलोड गर्नका लागि तल क्लिक गर्नुहोला। 

The Adventures of Jonathan Gullible (Nepali)- Episode 18

यस पोड्कास्टका अरु अङ्क सुन्नको लागि तल क्लिक गर्नु होला ।

Aug 24, 2013

Building Entrepreneurial Ecosystem for Fostering Entrepreneurship: Lessons from Nepal


Introduction

Anyone working on economic development of developing countries is bound to realize, sooner or later, that entrepreneurship does not get the recognition and support it deserves for its role in economic growth and poverty alleviation. In fact, it can also be argued that role of entrepreneurship in less advanced economies, like Nepal, is among the least studied subjects in the implied discourse. Yet, developing countries are teeming with entrepreneurs who are investing their time, energy, and skills in solving the problems that besiege their societies. Over 400 million individuals in developing countries are owners or managers of new firms. India and China alone are home to an estimated 200 million plus entrepreneurs. [1] But despite the ubiquity of entrepreneurs in these societies, the problems and hurdles they face in starting, expanding, and sustaining their ventures are numerous and much different from the hurdles that are addressed in the majority of the literature on entrepreneurship available today.

Image Source: http://careers.queensu.ca
Aspiring young entrepreneurs from Nepal have their own share of hurdles. Stigma associated with profit-making, an unfriendly business environment and a lack of support mechanisms are among the major challenges faced by these entrepreneurs.

Business and Profit: A Stigma

If you ask a businessman or a small firm owner in Nepal how much they make from their ventures it is more than likely that you get a vague answer along the lines of “It has been enough to make my ends meet.” The tendency to answer this way comes from the long held stigma about business and profit-making. In many of the developing countries like in South Asian societies, entrepreneurship is tantamount to profit-making which in turn is tantamount to cheating and robbing people. It is more so in Nepal where 80.6 percent of the population follows Hinduism. [2] According to Hinduism every human being is Amrutasya Putraha, a child of immortality and a spark of divinity. The purpose of life is to attain liberation which essentially is freedom from re-birth and the chain of cause and effect. One should live to understand reality and not for transitory material pursuits. [3]

Added to this is the caste system which prevails despite efforts from government to abolish it. The caste system, which has segregated jobs and professions along the hierarchy of the caste a person belongs to, is still a major impediment to youth from rural areas of the country who shy away from considering entrepreneurship as a career option.

The socialist school of thought dominating the political economic discourse of Nepal since the advent of democracy in 1951 has only exacerbated the negative perception towards entrepreneurship. The academic curriculum of high schools and universities are devoid of any mention of entrepreneurship which is one of the many reasons why very few youth consider entrepreneurship as a career option during their studies and rather focus on getting a secure job, especially a government job. A popular Nepali song called “Sarkari Jagir” highlights the importance of getting a government job in Nepal in which the singer says “when I went to ask her hand in marriage, her parents told me ‘first get a government job’.”

Policy Regime: Not So Business Friendly

The policy regime and the business environment is another setback for aspiring young entrepreneurs in Nepal. An open economy and a secure business environment are essential components for creating a vibrant entrepreneurial economy but Nepal’s current policy regime leaves much to be desired. The Doing Business Report 2013 [4] , which gives valuable insight on the entrepreneurial climate of nations around the world, ranked Nepal 108th out of the 185 countries studied on the ease of doing business. According to the report, Nepal fares badly when it comes to starting a new business (105th), paying taxes (114th), trading across borders (171st), enforcing contracts (137th), and resolving insolvency (121st). Lack of an environment conducive to formal businesses as well as lack of any incentive for small and medium scale businesses to operate formally has meant that around 96.2 percent of the total active population of the country is being employed by the informal sector. [5] Many small-sized enterprises choose to remain in the informal sector which has impeded the growth of economy in Nepal.

The Economic Freedom of the World Report, which measures the degree to which the policies and institutions of countries support economic freedom and entrepreneurship, ranked Nepal 110th out of the 144 countries studied in its 2012 report. [6] According to the report, Nepal scored 3.33 out of 10 in the Hiring and Minimum Wage regulations, 4.13 out of 10 in hiring and firing regulations and 2.05 out of 10 in the mandated cost of worker dismissal. Similarly, Nepal scored 3.22 in the extra payments/bribe/ favoritism category, making it one of the most corrupt countries in the globe. The height of corruption can be ascertained from that fact that people are forced to pay bribes even while paying taxes. [7]

Support Mechanisms for Aspiring Entrepreneurs: A void

Another hurdle aspiring entrepreneurs face in Nepal is the lack of support mechanisms for the various stages of their entrepreneurial journey. Since entrepreneurship is not included talked about in academia or anywhere else, there is a lack of avenue where aspiring entrepreneurs can learn about it. Instead, they are forced to rely on their own while starting and operating ventures. Similarly, getting access to credit from financial institutions is very difficult whereas the guidance they require for various practical aspects of business like marketing, expanding business, and dealing with employees is also hard to find. Hence, entrepreneurship is a lonely profession in societies like ours which discourages aspiring entrepreneurs.


Fostering Entrepreneurship: A Multidimensional Approach

So far, this essay has discussed about the major hurdles that aspiring young entrepreneurs in Nepal face. However, these hurdles have not stopped Nepalese youth from finding creative solutions and interventions to foster entrepreneurship. Nepalese youth, along with the support of various organizations, are building an entrepreneurial ecosystem that seeks to overcome the multitude of hurdles aspiring entrepreneurs face along the way. Entrepreneurial ecosystem refers to supportive organizations, institutions, and individuals that an entrepreneur needs during the various stages of their journey. A proper entrepreneurial ecosystem is an amalgamation of such individuals, institutions, and organizations that have an interest in bringing more entrepreneurs in a society and can contribute significantly to the success of an entrepreneur. Such an ecosystem is in the process of being constructed in Nepal and it is the young entrepreneurs themselves, who have been contributing and building the ecosystem.

Awareness and attitude change: The primary obstacle for Nepalese youth to engage in entrepreneurship has been the lack of awareness about it and the negative attitude associated with business and profit-making. Some social organizations in Nepal are working to change this scenario. Samriddhi, the Prosperity Foundation, has been running a residential workshop on entrepreneurship and economics for university level students. Named Arthalaya, this 5-day school trains university students to consider entrepreneurship as a career option along with making them aware about the policy regime required for an entrepreneur-friendly economy and the contribution of entrepreneurship in economic development. [8] The program has trained more than 400 students, out of which over 40 people have started their own ventures. More importantly, the participants have expressed a significant change in their attitude towards entrepreneurship. [9] Being personally involved in the program, I have witnessed the process of attitude change that young people go through, and have observed that attitude change alone ignites entrepreneurial-ambition among youth by providing them with encouragement and easing their conscience. Similarly, Entrepreneurs for Nepal, a network of aspiring and established entrepreneurs, conducts monthly meetings where aspiring entrepreneurs meet with an established local entrepreneur and hear his/her success stories and cautionary remarks on what pitfalls to avoid. The event has been highly popular among hundreds of young people joining the interactions. The group has been able to reach out to more than 7,000 people within and outside the country. The group has also created an online
presence on social networking sites where aspiring entrepreneurs share their stories and queries with each other. 

Start-up Capital and mentorship: Traditional financial institutions in Nepal do not yet recognize entrepreneurship as a potential and prolific investment opportunity, forcing aspiring entrepreneurs to rely on their family and relatives or seek informal borrowing with exorbitant interest rates in order to raise funds for starting their ventures. To overcome this hurdle, Biruwa Ventures has been helping aspiring young entrepreneurs start- up their ventures by providing office  space  and  networking opportunities, and helping them with legal and registration related issues.[10] Founded by three Nepali students who returned to Nepal after completing their studies in United States, the venture has turned into a sustainable practice by providing the necessary services to entrepreneurs for a small charge.[11] The group has also been investing in ideas that it finds lucrative, turning itself into a venture capital firm in the Nepalese context.

The next step of the entrepreneurial ecosystem is mentorship that is necessary for young entrepreneurs to succeed in their ventures. Entrepreneurs for Nepal (E4N) has been organizing one day workshops, called Boot Camps where new entrepreneurs get trainings and advices on practical aspects of business such as accounting and marketing. Similarly, the Sounding Board program provides an opportunity to young entrepreneurs with new ideas to get constructive criticism and practical suggestions for their ideas.[12]

Social Entrepreneurship and Recognition: Any discussion about entrepreneurship in developing societies would be incomplete without touching on social entrepreneurship. ChangeFushion Nepal, an organization set up with the primary objective of supporting social entrepreneurship, has helped social entrepreneurship start-ups by providing capital, mentorship, and awards administered through its Youth Action Fund. Similarly, Samriddhi, Biruwa Ventures, and ChangeFushion Nepal have been teaming up on a yearly basis to celebrate Global Entrepreneurship Week in an effort to create awareness and recognition of entrepreneurship by honoring prominent and innovative entrepreneurs of Nepal during the celebration. Another initiation called Surya Nepal Asha Social Entrepreneurship has been honoring social entrepreneurs with significant contribution in job creation and poverty alleviation. The recognition of entrepreneurs as engine of growth goes a long way in inspiring young people to become entrepreneurs.

Business Expansion Support: The entrepreneurial journey does not end with the establishment of a venture. Expanding and sustaining a venture is a primary challenge many entrepreneurs in Nepal face. Realizing the need of the hour, a few banks in Nepal have started providing access to credit to small-scale entrepreneurs for the expansion of their ventures. The realization has, however, a lot to do with the increasing interest in entrepreneurship created by aforementioned activities of various organizations working together to create the entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Entrepreneurial Climate Reform: Despite the various activities led by social organizations, a vibrant entrepreneurial society would be impossible without the necessary policy changes and reform in the entrepreneurial climate of the overall society. Gari Khana Deu , a nationwide campaign demanding rule of law, security of life and property and freedom to enterprise initiated by a coalition of business sector, civil society and other stakeholders of the reform, has been highlighting the overall issues faced by entrepreneurs and general public alike. Similarly, Samriddhi has published a report entitled Nepal Economic Growth Agenda, highlighting the major policy bottlenecks that prevent the growth of Nepalese economy’s major sectors and advocating for the recommendations the report has made.

Conclusion

 From observing the entrepreneurship development scene in Nepal, a few lessons can be drawn for entrepreneurship development in other developing nations. Entrepreneurship development requires a multi-dimensional intervention in the various aspects of the entrepreneurial ecosystem. A one- size fits all approach or a onetime intervention is likely to fail because aspiring young entrepreneurs need support at every stage of their entrepreneurial journey. More significantly, young people themselves can create this entrepreneurial ecosystem as observed from the experience of Nepal. It is necessary to understand that a single group of people or a single organization may not be able to create and contribute to the whole entrepreneurial ecosystem and hence, cooperation among organizations or groups of people working to address problems of different aspects of entrepreneurship development is necessary.

Notes: